For Chest Pain - Any chest pain lasting more than five minutes should be taken seriously. Call 911, rest and relax, chew an aspirin (4 baby aspirin are easier to chew), and take your nitroglycerin, if prescribed.
For Stroke - Stroke is to the brain as a heart attack is to the heart; you could call it a brain attack. The most important point with a stroke is to recognize its signs and symptoms, call 911 and get to the hospital. Stroke can be treated successfully if recognized and treated early. The signs and symptoms are sudden weakness or dizziness, a general weakness or paralysis effecting one side of the body, slurred speech and facial drooping on one side. (For example only one corner of the mouth turns up when a smile is attempted.)
For Seizures - Most seizure victims have a history of previous seizures. In most cases the seizure will pass in less than a minute. Protect the victim by moving away objects that he/she might strike against. The victim may not be breathing during the seizure and may turn blue. That is just part of the process and breathing should resume as soon as the seizure is over (do not attempt mouth to mouth breathing during the seizure). After the seizure, the victim will be tired and want to sleep. Roll him/her on the his/her side and protect his/her dignity. He/she has probably soiled him/her self. If the seizure doesn’t pass in a few moments or re-occurs call 911.
For Near Drowning - Call 911 and carefully remove the victim from the water. If victim is unresponsive, open the airway and look, listen and feel for breathing if he/she is not breathing, give two breaths and start CPR. If you don’t know how to do CPR, learn now before you need to use it.
For Broken Bones - The key word is immobilized. If the person is holding the injured limb against his/her body in an effort to keep it from moving, let them continue to do so. If he/she is not, instruct him/her to do so. If he/she is on the ground, let the ground splint him/her. Let the professionals move and transport the patient; they know how to do it without causing further harm.
For Serious Bleeding - The key words here are direct pressure on the bleeding site. With a clean cloth or dressing cover the wound and apply pressure directly to the bleeding site. Your hand should be able to apply enough pressure to control most bleeding or at least slow it until help arrives. If the cloth or dressing becomes bloody add more, but don’t take off the bloody one. Treat for shock.
For Burns - There are two types of burns: minor burns and major burns. Minor burns are small area burns treated with water. Run cool water over the burn area until the burning sensation stops then cover with clean dressing and ointment. Major burns are larger area burns often with blisters or charring. They are a true life-threatening emergency. Treatment includes stopping the burning process (cool water applied to the burned area), covering with a clean sheet or fabric dressing (do not use ointments) and treat for shock.
Treat for Shock - Lay the victim down and if practical raise their feet 12 inches. Maintain body temperature by covering them if it is cool. If the ground they are laying on is cool, protect them from the cool ground also. Remember, cool to the body is any temperature less than 96 degrees. If it is a hot, 115-degree day, you may need to protect them from the hot ground. Treat any injuries as appropriate.